- Island

Search / Calendar

Corvo Island (Portuguese: Ilha do Corvo, pronounced [ˈiʎɐ du ˈkoɾvu] (listen)), literally the Island of the Crow, is the smallest and the northernmost island of the Azores archipelago and the northernmost in Macaronesia. It has a population of approximately 384 inhabitants (as of 2021) making it the smallest single municipality in the Azores and in Portugal. The island lies on the North American Plate.

Corvo Island
Native name:
Ilha do Corvo
The island of Corvo as seen from the Corvo-Flores Channel
Location in the Azores
LocationAtlantic Ocean
Coordinates39°41′51″N 31°06′19″W
Area17.12 km2 (6.61 sq mi)[1]
Coastline21.49 km (13.353 mi)[1]
Highest elevation720 m (2360 ft)[1]
Highest pointEstreitinho
DemonymCorvino; Corvense
Population 384 (2021)[2]
Ethnic groupsPortuguese
Additional information
Time zone
  • UTC−01:00


Apocryphal stories of the Carthaginian Empire exploring the islands in approximately 200 BC notwithstanding,[3] the mainstream history of the Azores originates with non-official exploration during the period of the late 13th century, resulting in maps, such as the Genovese Atlas Medici from 1351, which mentions obscure islands in an undefined Atlantic archipelago. The Medici Atlas refers to an Insula Corvi Marini (Island of the Marine Crow; "marine crow" is the literal translation of Corvo Marinho, which is the Portuguese name for the cormorant), in a seven-island archipelago, but it is improbable that it refers specifically to Corvo, although the island's name could have originated from this atlas. It is likely that the name referred to the two islands of Corvo and Flores, which also appeared on the later Aragonese Mapa Catalão of 1375.

The navigator Diogo de Teive discovered both islands of the Azores' Western Group on his 1452 return from the Banks of Newfoundland following his second voyage of exploration. Subsequently, the Portuguese Court, when referring to the new Ilhas das Flores (Islands of Flowers), began to identify Corvo as Ilha de Santa Iria (Island of Saint Irene), but other nautical charts continued to refer to this island as Ilhéu das Flores (Islet of Flowers), Ilha da Estátua (Island of the Statue), Ilha do Farol (Island of the Lighthouse) or Ilha de São Tomás (Island of Saint Thomas). For a while it was also known as Ilha do Marco (Island of the Mark), which was attributed to its reference as a geographic marker for sailors, or, likely, the location of a small promontory where a marker was placed, which received the name Ponta do Marco.

Unsuccessful attempts at settlement of the island occurred in the following years; not until 1580 did a permanent settlement become viable.

A religious parish of Corvo was finally constituted in 1674, and then on 20 June 1832, integrated into a functioning civilian administration.

Geology and Geography

The perspective from the island of Flores
The perspective from the island of Flores
The view of the pasturelands of Zimbral
The view of the pasturelands of Zimbral

The island is located on the North American Plate, west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a sea-mount of approximately 1.5-1.0 million years age. The islands of Corvo and Flores emerged from a submarine mount oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest line, while Corvo is controlled by faults oriented north to south, parallel to the mid-Atlantic Ridge, and transform faults oriented west to east which crosscut secondary cones on the outer slopes. The island formed from a 5 km diameter central volcano (Monte Gorde) that emerged around 730,000 years ago, whose central cone was approximately 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in altitude. The crater collapsed 430,000 years ago during a Plinian eruption, forming a subsidence caldera (2,000 m (7,000 ft) in diameter and 300 m (1,000 ft) depth), referred to as the Caldeirão. Within the caldera are several cinder and spatter cones (20–30 m (65–100 ft) in height) giving rise to small lakes, peat bogs, and islets (two long and five rounded). The highest point on the island, the Morro dos Homens, crowns the southern rim of the Caldeirão at 718 m (2,356 ft) above sea level.

Two main volcanic complexes are usually recognized:

While the initial phases were dominated by basaltic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, the final phase was characterized by pumice, surges, lahars, and pyroclastic flows characteristic of Plinian and sub-Plinian eruptions.

Sheer cliffs dominate the coastal areas, the exception being along the southern margin which is composed of ancient lava flows. The western cliffs, with an almost vertical slope rises 700 m (2,300 ft) above sea level; one of the major coastal elevations in the Atlantic. Remnants of the ancient volcano are partially preserved in the southern and eastern flanks of the island (which retain altitudes between 500 and 700 m (1,600 and 2,300 ft) above sea level). In addition to marine erosion, the island is constantly eroded by strong northeast and western winds. In the south, secondary cinder cones, such as Coroinha, Morro da Fonte, Grotão da Castelhana and Coroa do Pico, are visibly preserved with little erosion, and responsible for many basaltic flows that formed the southern lava fajã (10–60 m (30–200 ft) above sea level). The last eruption took place about 80-100,000 years ago in the vicinity of Vila Nova do Corvo.

In the extreme northeast, along the Ponta Torrais there are two small islets, Ilhéu dos Torrais and the Ilhéu do Torrão, in addition to several submarine reefs, that are dangerous to navigation. At the end of October 2012, following several days of excess rainfall, a landslide occurred that dislodged geological debris along the northwestern corner of the island, resulting in the formation of small islets, that progressively transformed into a peninsula and, finally a fajã.[4]

A panorama of the Caldeirão, the remnants of the last Plinian eruption on the island of Corvo, as seen from the crater rim around Malaguetas
A panorama of the Caldeirão, the remnants of the last Plinian eruption on the island of Corvo, as seen from the crater rim around Malaguetas


Corvo's caldeira, a protected area
Corvo's caldeira, a protected area
Cory's shearwater looking for fish near the island
Cory's shearwater looking for fish near the island

Ecoregions/Protected areas

The Corvo Nature Park was created under Regional Legislative Decree 44/2008/A, on 5 November 2008, in order to conserve and protect species habitat and natural resources on the island. It includes principally two categories, and associated areas of intervention:

Protected Areas for the Management of Habitats and Coastal Species
Protected Areas for the Management of Resources

Important Bird Area

The islands of Corvo and neighbouring Flores, along with the surrounding waters, form the 210,400 ha Corvo and Flores Important Bird Area (IBA), designated as such by BirdLife International because it provides feeding and breeding sites for populations of Cory's, little and Manx shearwaters, as well as roseate and common terns, and, possibly, Madeiran storm petrels.[5]


According to Köppen, Corvo has a humid subtropical climate. As its the case with other western Azorean islands, the climate is very humid and mild to warm year-round due the effects of the Gulf Stream, with around 1,100 mm (43.3 in) of precipitation annually near the coast and reaching 2,400 mm (94.5 in) at the highest altitudes, comfortable although generally windy. Average temperatures are around 17.5 °C (64 °F) in Vila do Corvo, varying between 14 °C (57 °F) in the winter to 22 °C (72 °F) in the summer. Fog is common and almost permanent at higher elevations (and is referred to as the Fogs of São João). Due to maritime agitation, particularly on the western coast, there is elevated abrasion along the coast. Relative humidity is around 80% year-round.

Climate data for Corvo Airport, 1961-1981, altitude: 18 m (59 ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.9
Average high °C (°F) 16.2
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.2
Average low °C (°F) 12.3
Record low °C (°F) 5.3
Average rainfall mm (inches) 144.0
Average relative humidity (%) 80 81 82 82 81 82 80 79 80 80 82 81 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 78.6 86.0 112.5 137.3 168.4 161.6 217.3 231.1 168.2 124.0 88.7 66.9 1,640.6
Percent possible sunshine 26 29 31 35 38 36 48 55 45 36 30 23 36
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia[6][7]

Human settlement

There is one urban center on the island: Vila do Corvo. Principally, it is a collection of many residential homes, interspersed with commercial businesses located on the southern one-third of the island. Functionally, by law, Vila do Corvo is the only Portuguese top-level municipality without a civil parish. The urbanized area is divided between the village, the airport, and the island's ports (being the primary links to the other islands in the archipelago). The lands immediately around the settlement are small zones along the eastern coast (Quintas and Fojo) that can sustain cultivation of some crops and fruit trees, and where some older trees have survived settlement; the best pasture-lands are located in the north in the zone of Terras Altas.

Vila do Corvo, the only settlement on the island, as seen from Portal, looking towards Flores Island.
Vila do Corvo, the only settlement on the island, as seen from Portal, looking towards Flores Island.

The southern coast, referred to as Enseada de Nossa Senhora do Rosário, is the location of three ports, constructed at various times for diverse needs: Porto Novo (currently not utilized), the Porto do Boqueirão and Porto da Casa (the largest and the island's commercial port). Portinho da Areia, on the extreme west of the southern coast (at the end of the airport's runway) is the only beach and principal swimming area on the island.


Subsistence agriculture has predominated on the island since it was first settled. It currently occupies 17.5% of the area of the municipality, and concentrated on small parcels in the eastern half of the island and along the northern parts of Vila do Corvo. In this patchwork of volcanic hedge-rows, farmers concentrate on semi-permanent crops (potatoes, some cereals, including wheat and citrus orchards).

Dairy production is the primary activity, and cheese is one of the primary commercialized products, although the raising of pigs and poultry is also common. Until the 1960s, the raising of sheep and the commercialization of wool was also important on the island. This was until a change in forestry policy forced many farmers to vacate uncultivated lands, lands that were routinely used to graze sheep. It was quickly the end of the wool industry on the island, an industry that had been integral to the island's small export industry.


The island is served by the Corvo Airport (IATA: CVU, ICAO: LPCR), located on the southern margin of the island between the village and southern ocean ports. Inter-island flights are handled by SATA Air Açores: there are no direct flights to Corvo from outside the archipelago. Since the 1990s, the airport was serviced by one Bombardier Dash 8 Q200 aircraft, big enough to handle the low volume of traffic to the island (weather permitting). These flights have since been operated by alternating DeHavilland Dash 8 aircraft, as part of the fleet revitalization program of the late 20th century.

See also



  1. "Ilha do Corvo". Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  2. "Censos 2021: Resultados Provisórios". Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021.
  3. W. Roller, Duane (2013). Through the Pillars of Herakles : Greco-Roman Exploration of the Atlantic. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 9781134192335. OCLC 826855488.
  4. Melo, Ana Carvalho (4 December 2012), Parque Natural monitoriza "nascimento" de nova fajã no Corvo (in Portuguese), Ponta Delgada (Azores), Portugal: Açoreano Oriental, archived from the original on 21 June 2013, retrieved 5 December 2012
  5. "Corvo and Flores". BirdLife Data Zone. BirdLife International. 2020. Archived from the original on 23 June 2022. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  6. "Plano de gestão de recursos hídricos da ilha do corvo" (PDF). p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2021. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  7. "Atlas Climático Ibérico" (PDF). IPMA, AEMET. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 May 2021. Retrieved 6 December 2020.


На других языках

[de] Corvo

- [en] Corvo Island

[es] Isla de Corvo

La isla de Corvo (en portugués, ilha do Corvo, en español: Isla del Cuervo) es la isla más pequeña del archipiélago de las Azores, Portugal, estando situada en el grupo occidental de islas, sobre la placa Norteamericana, al norte de la isla de Flores. La isla ocupa una superficie de 17,13 km², con 6,5 km de largo por 4 km de ancho. Dista de la isla de Flores 6 millas náuticas. Su capital es Vila do Corvo.

[fr] Corvo (île)

L'île Corvo ou l'île noire[LM 1], en portugais Ilha do Corvo, est une île portugaise située dans les Açores.

[it] Corvo (isola)

Corvo (ˈkoɾvu) è una isola e comune portoghese di 430 abitanti (2011) situato nella Regione Autonoma delle Azzorre.

[ru] Корву

Корву (порт. Ilha do Corvo, буквально — «остров ворон») — самый маленький и самый северный остров Азорского архипелага, относится к Западной группе островов. Также это самый северный остров Макаронезии.

Текст в блоке "Читать" взят с сайта "Википедия" и доступен по лицензии Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike; в отдельных случаях могут действовать дополнительные условия.

Другой контент может иметь иную лицензию. Перед использованием материалов сайта внимательно изучите правила лицензирования конкретных элементов наполнения сайта.

2019-2023 - проект по пересортировке и дополнению контента Википедии