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Nan Madol is an archaeological site adjacent to the eastern shore of the island of Pohnpei, now part of the Madolenihmw district of Pohnpei state in the Federated States of Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. Nan Madol was the capital of the Saudeleur dynasty until about 1628.[3][note 1] The city, constructed in a lagoon, consists of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals.[3] The site core with its stone walls encloses an area approximately 1.5 km long by 0.5 km wide and it contains nearly 100 artificial islets—stone and coral fill platforms—bordered by tidal canals.

Nan Madol
Nan Madol
LocationTemwen Island, Federated States of Micronesia
Coordinates6°50′31″N 158°19′56″E
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameNan Madol: Ceremonial Centre of Eastern Micronesia
Criteriai, iii, iv, vi
Designated2016 (40th session)
Reference no.1503
RegionAsia and the Pacific
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
Designated19 December 1974
Reference no.74002226[1]
U.S. National Historic Landmark District
Designated16 September 1985[2]
Location of Nan Madol in Federated States of Micronesia
Nan Madol complex map
Nan Madol complex map

The name Nan Madol means "within the intervals" and is a reference to the canals that crisscross the ruins.[9] The original name was Soun Nan-leng (Reef of Heaven), according to Gene Ashby in his book Pohnpei, An Island Argosy.[10] The ruined city is one of today's great archaeological enigmas and is sometimes called "Atlantis", the "eighth wonder of the world," or the "Venice of the Pacific".[11]


Nan Madol was the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur Dynasty, which united Pohnpei's estimated population of 25,000 people until about 1628.[3] Set apart between the main island of Pohnpei and Temwen Island, it was a scene of human activity as early as the first or second century AD. By the 8th or 9th century, islet construction had started, with construction of the distinctive megalithic architecture beginning 1180–1200 AD.[12]

Little can be verified about the megalithic construction. Pohnpeian tradition claims that the builders of the Leluh archaeological site on Kosrae (likewise composed of huge stone buildings) migrated to Pohnpei, where they used their skills and experience to build the even more impressive Nan Madol complex. Radiocarbon dating indicates that Nan Madol predates Leluh; thus, it is more likely that Nan Madol influenced Leluh.[12]

According to Pohnpeian legend, Nan Madol was constructed by twin sorcerers Olisihpa and Olosohpa from the mythical Western Katau, or Kanamwayso. The brothers arrived in a large canoe seeking a place to build an altar so that they could worship Nahnisohn Sahpw, the god of agriculture. After several false starts, the two brothers successfully built an altar off Temwen Island, where they performed their rituals. In legend, these brothers levitated the huge stones with the aid of a flying dragon. When Olisihpa died of old age, Olosohpa became the first Saudeleur. Olosohpa married a local woman and sired twelve generations, producing sixteen other Saudeleur rulers of the Dipwilap ("Great") clan.[note 2]

The founders of the dynasty ruled kindly, though their successors placed ever increasing demands on their subjects. Their reign ended with the invasion by Isokelekel, who also resided at Nan Madol, though his successors abandoned the site.[7][13][14] Polish ethnographer and oceanographer John Stanislaw Kubary made the first detailed description of Nan Madol in 1874.[15]

Purpose and features

Detail of columnar basalt pieces
Detail of columnar basalt pieces

The elite centre was a special place of residence for the nobility and of mortuary activities presided over by priests. Its population almost certainly did not exceed 1,000, and may have been less than half that. Although many of the residents were chiefs, the majority were commoners. Nan Madol served, in part, as a way for the ruling Saudeleur chiefs to organize and control potential rivals by requiring them to live in the city rather than in their home districts, where their activities were difficult to monitor.

Madol Powe, the mortuary sector, contains 58 islets in the northeastern area of Nan Madol. Most islets were once occupied by the dwellings of priests. Some islets served a special purpose: food preparation, canoe construction on Dapahu, and coconut oil preparation on Peinering. High walls surrounding tombs are located on Peinkitel, Karian, and Lemenkou, but the most prominent is the royal mortuary islet of Nandauwas, where walls 5.5–7.5 m (18–25 ft) high surround a central tomb enclosure within the main courtyard. This was built for the first Saudeleur.[12]

On Nan Madol, there is no fresh water or food; water must be collected and food grown inland. During Saudeleur rule, Pohnpeians brought essential food and water by boat.[4][6][16] The Saudeleur received food at a particular islet — first Peiniot, and later the closer Usennamw.[6][7]

Around 1628, when Isokelekel overthrew the Saudeleurs and began the Nahnmwarki Era, the Nahnmwarkis lived at Nan Madol, but had to gather their own water and grow their own food. This is thought[who?] to have caused them eventually to abandon Nan Madol and move back to their own districts, although there are other explanations for the desertion of the complex, such as a sharp population decline.


Example of Nan Madol's architecture
Example of Nan Madol's architecture

Today Nan Madol forms an archaeological district covering more than 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi) and includes the stone architecture built up on a coral reef flat along the shore of Temwen Island, several other artificial islets, and the adjacent Pohnpei main island coastline. The site core with its stone walls encloses an area approximately 1.5 by 0.5 kilometres (0.93 by 0.31 mi) containing nearly 100 artificial islets—stone and coral fill platforms—bordered by tidal canals.[citation needed]

Carbon dating indicates that megalithic construction at Nan Madol began around AD 1180 when large basalt stones were taken from a volcanic plug on the opposite side of Pohnpei. The earliest settlement on Pohnpei was probably around AD 1 although radiocarbon dating shows human activity starting around AD 80–200.[12]

In 1985, the ruins of Nan Madol were declared a National Historical Landmark.[citation needed]

Until its closure in 2012, objects from the site were displayed at Lidorkini Museum.[17]

Lost continent theories

The ruins of Nan Madol and surroundings
The ruins of Nan Madol and surroundings

Nan Madol has been interpreted by some as the remains of one of the "lost continents" of Lemuria or Mu. Nan Madol was one of the sites James Churchward identified as being part of the lost continent of Mu, starting in his 1926 book The Lost Continent of Mu Motherland of Man.

In his book Lost City of Stones (1978), writer Bill S. Ballinger theorizes that the city was built by Greek sailors c. 300 BC. David Hatcher Childress, author and publisher, speculates that Nan Madol is connected to the lost continent of Lemuria.[18] The 1999 book The Coming Global Superstorm by Art Bell and Whitley Strieber, which predicts that global warming might produce sudden and catastrophic climatic effects, claims that the construction of Nan Madol, with exacting tolerances and extremely heavy basalt materials, necessitated a high degree of technical competency. Since no such society exists in the modern record this society must have been destroyed by dramatic means.[citation needed]





See also



  1. The Saudeleur era lasted around 500 years.[4] Legend generally dates their downfall to the 1500s,[5] however archaeologists date Saudeleur ruins to ca. 1628.[6][7][8]
  2. Hanlon (1988) notes differing accounts of the number of Saudeleur rulers, ranging from eight to seventeen, concluding that it is impossible to know this number for certain.[4]:234


  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 23 January 2007.
  2. "Nan Madol". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2007.
  3. Nan Madol, Madolenihmw, Pohnpei Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine William Ayres, Department of Anthropology University Of Oregon, Accessed 26 September 2007
  4. Hanlon, David L (1988). Upon a Stone Altar: A History of the Island of Pohnpei to 1890. Pacific Islands Monograph. Vol. 5. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 13–25. ISBN 0-8248-1124-0. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  5. Cordy, Ross H (1993). The Lelu Stone Ruins (Kosrae, Micronesia): 1978-81 Historical and Archaeological Research. Asian and Pacific Archaeology. Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 14, 254, 258. ISBN 0-8248-1134-8. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  6. Morgan, William N (1988). Prehistoric Architecture in Micronesia. University of Texas Press. pp. 60, 63, 76, 85. ISBN 0-292-76506-1. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  7. Panholzer, Tom; Rufino, Mauricio (2003). Place Names of Pohnpei Island: Including And (Ant) and Pakin Atolls. Bess Press. pp. xiii, 21, 22, 25, 38, 48, 56, 63, 71. 72, 74, 104. ISBN 1-57306-166-2. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  8. Micronesica. University of Guam. 1990. pp. 92, 203, 277. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  9. "Nan Madol (U.S. National Park Service)".
  10. Ashby, Gene; 'Pohnpei, An Island Argosy'; Publisher: Rainy Day Pr West; Revised edition (June 1987); ISBN 978-0-931742-14-9
  11. [permanent dead link]
  12. McCoy, Mark D.; Alderson, Helen A.; Hemi, Richard; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence (November 2016). "Earliest direct evidence of monument building at the archaeological site of Nan Madol (Pohnpei, Micronesia) identified using 230Th/U coral dating and geochemical sourcing of megalithic architectural stone" (PDF). Quaternary Research. 86 (3): 295–303. Bibcode:2016QuRes..86..295M. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2016.08.002. Retrieved 30 October 2017.
  13. Riesenberg, Saul H (1968). The Native Polity of Ponape. Contributions to Anthropology. Vol. 10. Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 38, 51. ISBN 9780598442437. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  14. Goodenough, Ward Hunt (2002). Under Heaven's Brow: Pre-Christian Religious Tradition in Chuuk. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 246. American Philosophical Society. p. 293. ISBN 0-87169-246-5. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  15. Rainbird, Paul (2004). The Archaeology of Micronesia. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0521651882. Retrieved 31 October 2017.
  16. Ballinger, Bill Sanborn (1978). Lost City of Stone: The Story of Nan Madol, the "Atlantis" of the Pacific. Simon and Schuster. pp. 45–8. ISBN 0-671-24030-7. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
  17. Hunt, Errol (2000). South Pacific. Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-0-86442-717-5.
  18. Lost Cities of Ancient Lemuria & the Pacific, 1991, ISBN 0-932813-04-6


На других языках

- [en] Nan Madol

[es] Nan Madol

Nan Madol es una serie de pequeñas islas artificiales unidas por una red de canales, más conocida como «La Venecia del Pacífico». Está cerca de la isla de Pohnpei, que forma parte de los Estados Federados de Micronesia, y fue la capital de la dinastía Saudeleur hasta aproximadamente el año 1500 de nuestra era. Nan Madol significa "lugar entre los espacios" [1]y hace referencia a sus canales. El yacimiento de Nan Madol fue declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco en 2016.

[it] Nan Madol

Nan Madol sono delle rovine di una città, situate lungo la costa orientale dell'isola di Pohnpei (una delle quattro suddivisioni amministrative degli Stati Federati di Micronesia) e antica capitale della dinastia Saudeleur fino al 1500. .mw-parser-output .chiarimento{background:#ffeaea;color:#444444}.mw-parser-output .chiarimento-apice{color:red}La dinastia aveva la fama di essere particolarmente dissoluta e di aver conquistato brutalmente Pohnpei, esigendo pesanti tributi in cibo e lavoro da parte degli abitanti.[senza fonte]

[ru] Нан-Мадол

Нан-Мадо́л (на яз. понапе Nan Madol[1], букв. — «место промежуточных пространств, промежутки»[* 1]) — небольшой архипелаг к юго-востоку от острова Понпеи в Тихом океане, состоящий из более чем сотни искусственных островков из базальтовых монолитов и коралловых блоков, связанных системой каналов[2].

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