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The Kelud (Javanese: ꦏꦼꦭꦸꦢ꧀, romanized: Kelud, sometimes spelled as Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is an active stratovolcano located in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history. More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 AD.[1] In 2007, an effusive explosion filled the crater with a lava dome. It last erupted on 13 February 2014, destroying the lava dome and ejecting boulders, stones and ashes up to West Java about 500 kilometres (310 mi) from Mount Kelud. The crater filled with water during the rainy season.[2][3]

Highest point
Elevation1,731 m (5,679 ft)
ListingList of volcanoes in Indonesia
Coordinates7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E
Kediri, East Java, Indonesia
Mountain typeStratovolcano
Volcanic arc/beltSunda Arc
Last eruption13 February 2014

1334 eruption

The eruption history of Kelud is quite unique in Indonesian history, because it was one of the few volcanoes whose activities were recorded in Indonesian historical accounts. According to Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 4 and 5 (composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365), King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit was born in 1256 Saka, which corresponds to 1334 CE, the same year that Mount Kelud erupted. Prapanca argued that this was the divine sign that Batara Gurunata has manifest Himself on earth, reincarnated as the Javanese king.[4] This account also describes the local Javanese psyche at that time (and even up to present) that regarded the natural event such as volcanic eruption, as the divine sign from the gods.

1586 eruption

In the year 1586 the worst eruption of mount Kelud killed over 10,000 people.[5][6]

1919 mudflow

The crater in 1919
The crater in 1919

On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as "lahars").[7] More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people.[8] Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnels were built (top and bottom) on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain completely) the water of the crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard.

1990 eruption

A strong and explosive eruption on early February 1990 produced a seven-kilometer-high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. More than thirty people were killed. Workers continued to construct the Ampera Tunnel despite the still-hot (90–400 °C or 200–800 °F) pyroclastic flow deposits which reached as high as 25 metres (80 ft) and buried the tunnel's mouth.

2007 eruption

On 16 October 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption.[9]

Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, 3 November 2007. The eruption was confirmed by the Indonesian government's Centre for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation.[10][11] Although no visual confirmation was possible when the eruption began because the volcano's peak was shrouded by clouds, Indonesian government volcanologists said seismic readings showed an eruption was under way.[8][11] More than 350,000 people lived within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of the volcano. Surabaya, Indonesia's third-largest urban area and home to one of the country's busiest airports, is 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the northwest.[11] Although local inhabitants were ordered to leave their homes in mid-October, many either did not evacuate or returned in the interim.[8] Many villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the eruption.[11] But by early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption that day had not been very large at all. Seismological equipment near the volcano's crater was still operating, and scientists said that indicated a small eruption at best.[12]

However, early Sunday morning, 4 November, Mount Kelud spewed ash 500 metres (1,600 ft) into the air, indicating a full eruption was taking place.[13] "The eruption isn't over," Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesian Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Agency, said. Seismologists monitoring the crater said surface temperatures in Mount Kelud's crater lake rose on 4 November to 60.7 °C (141.3 °F) from 43.9 °C (111.0 °F) on 3 November. At a depth of 15 metres (49 ft), the temperature jumped to 66.1 °C (151.0 °F) on 4 November from 45.9 °C (114.6 °F) on 3 November.[14] The extreme heat created a cloud of steam and smoke 488 metres (1,601 ft) high.[15]

On 5 November, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the crater. Boiling water cascaded down the flanks of the mountain from the crater lake, and seismological equipment near the crater ceased working. Indonesian authorities said about 25,000 people remained in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders.[16]

The following day, a lava dome rose through the centre of the crater lake atop the mountain. Closed-circuit television cameras showed the 100-metre (330 ft) long oblong island had pushed about 20 metres (66 ft) above the surface of the lake. The volcano continued to emit smoke, with plumes reaching 3,280 feet (1,000 m) into the atmosphere.[17]

But after 48 hours of smoke and ash but no lava, Indonesian officials declared on 8 November that no eruption was immediate. Officials said the volcano was experiencing a "slow eruption" and was unlikely to explode as it had done many times in the past century.[18]

By 12 November, Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake. The lava dome, which had expanded to 250 metres (820 ft) long and 120 metres (390 ft) high, cracked open and lava began oozing into the surrounding water. Smoke rose more than two kilometres (1.2 mi; 6,600 ft) into the air, and ash dusted several villages around the volcano.[18] On 14 November, smoke billowed 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) into the air, and light ash covered villages 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away.[19] The hot lava dome occupied the lake crater and, consequently, the lake disappeared.[20]

2014 eruption

2014 eruption of Kelud
Ashfall in Yogyakarta from the Kelud eruption in February 2014
Start date13 February 2014 (2014-02-13)[21]
End date15 February 2014 (2014-02-15)[21]

Kelud erupted on 13 February 2014.[22][23][24] The eruption occurred at 22:50 local time (UT+7). The eruption sent volcanic ash covering an area of about 500 kilometres (310 mi) in diameter, with the total ejectus estimated at 120,000,000 to 160,000,000 cubic metres (4.2×109 to 5.7×109 cu ft) being a VEI 4 eruption. Ashfall occurred over a large portion of Java island, from Malang to the west, as well as Central Java and Yogyakarta.[25][26][27][28] The eruption prompted about 76,000 inhabitants to evacuate their homes.[29] Two people were reported dead after their houses collapsed from the weight of ash. An elderly man also died from inhaling the ash.[30] The ash also reportedly reached the western region of Java by February 14 afternoon, where traces of volcanic ash were found in Bandung and surroundings.[citation needed]

Ashfall from the eruption caused major disruption across Java.[28] Seven airports, in Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Surabaya, Malang, Semarang, Cilacap and Bandung, were closed.[31] Financial losses from the airport closures were valued in the billions of rupiah (millions of US dollars), including an estimated 2 billion rupiah (US$200,000) at Juanda International Airport in Surabaya.[32] Significant damage was caused to a variety of manufacturing and agricultural industries. The ashfall meant companies such as Unilever Indonesia had difficulty distributing their products throughout affected areas. Apple orchards in Batu, East Java, posted losses of up to Rp 17.8 billion, while the dairy industry in the province posted high losses.[33]

Kali Code and nearby homes in Yogyakarta during the 2014 Kelud eruption.
Kali Code and nearby homes in Yogyakarta during the 2014 Kelud eruption.

On 14 February 2014, major tourist attractions in Yogyakarta and Central Java, including Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko, were closed to visitors, after being severely affected by the volcanic ashfall from the eruption of Kelud volcano a day earlier, in East Java, located around 200 kilometers east from Yogyakarta. Workers covered the iconic stupas and statues of Borobudur temple to protect the structure from volcanic ash.[34] Owing to the ash, many tourists cancelled their reservations at hotels throughout Central Java. Tempo reported that hotels in Yogyakarta had posted losses of Rp 22 billion (US$2.2 million) as more than 80 percent of reservations were canceled owing to the ash.[35]

A man sweeping ash from the road in Yogyakarta during the 2014 eruption of Kelud
A man sweeping ash from the road in Yogyakarta during the 2014 eruption of Kelud

Flow-up following the eruptions had begun by 15 February. Indonesian military personnel used water cannons to clear roads, and were later involved in reconstruction efforts in the areas surrounding Kelud.[29][36] Citizens did likewise, although with less powerful equipment.[37] Ash from Yogyakarta was disposed in the depressions of fields in four villages located 5–10 kilometres (3.1–6.2 mi) from Yogyakarta.[38] Political parties vying for the April elections helped distribute food to victims of the eruptions.[29] By February 20 most businesses and attractions which had closed owing to the ashfall had reopened, although cleaning operations were still ongoing.[39]

The volcano's alert status was downgraded on 21 February, and the exclusion zone reduced from 10 to 5 kilometres (6.2 to 3.1 mi).[40] By early March most of the 12,304 buildings destroyed or damaged during the eruptions had been repaired, at an estimated cost of Rp 55 billion (US$5.5 million).[36]

See also



  1. Thouret, et al., "Origin, Characteristics, and Behavior of Lahars Following the 1990 Eruption of Kelud Volcano, Eastern Java (Indonesia)," Bulletin of Volcanology, June 1998.
  2. "Erupai Kelud Ciptakan Kawah Bediameter 400 Meter". March 1, 2014.
  3. Ahmad Arif (November 28, 2014). "Merekayasa Gunung Kelud".
  4. Mpu Prapanca, translated by Slamet Muljana. "Terjemahan Kakawin Dēśawarṇnana (Nāgarakṛtāgama)" (in Indonesian). Jejak Nusantara. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  5. "Kelud volcano". Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  6. "Eruption of Kelud in 1586". 9 December 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  7. Gunn 2008
  8. "Indonesia Volcano Starts to Erupt," Associated Press, November 3, 2007.
  9. Karmini, "Indonesian Volcano Threatens to Erupt," Associated Press, October 16, 2007.
  10. "Mt. Kelud Starts to Erupt," Jakarta Post, November 3, 2007.
  11. Retnowati, "Indonesia's Volcano Mt. Kelud Erupts - Official," Reuters, November 3, 2007.
  12. Indra Harsaputra, "Scientist: Indonesian Volcano's Erupting," Associated Press, November 3, 2007.
  13. "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official," Reuters, November 4, 2007.
  14. Karima Anjani, "Indonesian Volcano Kelud Spews Ash - Official," Bloomberg Business News, November 4, 2007.
  15. Irwan Firdaus, "Thousands Defy Indonesia Volcano Warning," Associated Press, November 4, 2007.
  16. Irwan Firdaus, "Crater Temperature at Indonesia Volcano Up," Associated Press, November 5, 2007.
  17. "'Island' Emerges in Indonesian Volcano Crater," Agence France-Presse, November 6, 2007.
  18. "Indonesia's Mount Kelut Spews Ash and Lava," Agence France-Presse, November 12, 2007.
  19. "Volcano Spews Lava, Red-Hot Rocks," The Independent, November 14, 2007.
  20. Jeffery, A. J.; Gertisser, R.; Troll, V. R.; Jolis, E. M.; Dahren, B.; Harris, C.; Tindle, A. G.; Preece, K.; O’Driscoll, B.; Humaida, H.; Chadwick, J. P. (2013-07-01). "The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia". Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 166 (1): 275–308. doi:10.1007/s00410-013-0875-4. ISSN 1432-0967.
  21. "Kelut: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  22. Mount Kelud Java Island erupts.
  23. Significant eruption of Kelud
  24. Eruption of the Kelut volcano in Java
  25. "Gunung Kelud Meletus" (in Indonesian). MetroTV News. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  26. "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Soloraya Tertutup Hujan Abu Pekat" (in Indonesian). Harian Jogja. 14 February 2014. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  27. "Gunung Kelud Meletus, Hujan Pasir Terasa Hingga Malang Blitar" (in Indonesian). Merdeka. 14 February 2014.
  28. "Mt. Kelud eruption paralyzes Java". The Jakarta Post. 15 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  29. Niniek Karmini (15 February 2014). "Cleanup begins after eruption of Indonesian volcano". CTV News. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  30. BBC News 2014
  31. "7 Bandara Ditutup, 76.388 Jiwa Mengungsi Akibat Erupsi Kelud". February 14, 2014.
  32. "With Mount Kelud Quieter, Airports and Towns Start the Big Clean-Up". The Jakarta Globe. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  33. Wahyoe Boediwardhana and Indra Harsaputra (17 February 2014). "Kelud causes billions in losses". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  34. "Borobudur, Other Sites, Closed After Mount Kelud Eruption". The Jakarta Globe. February 14, 2014. Archived from the original on 23 October 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
  35. Muh Syaifullah (18 February 2014). "Kelud Ashes Cause Yogyakarta Tourism to Decline". Tempo. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  36. "Buildings in Mt. Kelud shadow rise from ashes". The Jakarta Post. 9 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  37. Indra Harsaputra and Bambang Muryanto (16 February 2014). "Java rebounds from eruption". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  38. Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina (2015-10-01). "Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 304: 359–377. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.09.014. hdl:10092/11705.
  39. "Airport, temples reopen but Mt. Kelud high alert remains". The Jakarta Post. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
  40. Indra Harsaputra and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas (21 February 2014). "Mount Kelud's alert status downgraded". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.


Further reading

Media related to Kelud at Wikimedia Commons

На других языках

[de] Kelut

Der Kelut, auch Kelud oder Gunung Kelud, ist ein aktiver Vulkan im Osten der indonesischen Insel Java. Wie zahlreiche andere indonesische Vulkane ist er für heftige, explosive Ausbrüche bekannt, und gilt dabei als einer der gefährlichsten Vulkane Javas. Zur Entwässerung des Kratersees, der für Schlammströme hauptverantwortlich ist, wurde ein Tunnelsystem installiert.
- [en] Kelud

[es] Kelut

Kelut o Kelud (Gunung Kelud) es un volcán localizado en la isla de Java en Indonesia. Como muchos volcanes indonesios y otros situados en el Cinturón de Fuego del Pacífico, el Kelut es conocido por las grandes erupciones explosivas que se han producido a lo largo de su historia. Desde el año 1000 se han contabilizado más de treinta erupciones.[1]

[fr] Kelud

Le volcan Kelud est un stratovolcan actif situé dans l'est de l'île de Java, en Indonésie. Haut de 1 731 mètres, il est proche de plusieurs villes importantes, Blitar, Kediri et Malang, ce qui en fait l'un des plus dangereux au monde.

[it] Kelud

Il Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed o Kelut) è un stratovulcano situato a Giava orientale in Indonesia.

[ru] Келуд

Келуд (индон. Gunung Kelud, яв. ꦒꦸꦤꦸꦁꦏꦼꦭꦸꦠ꧀ Gunung Kelud) — действующий вулкан на острове Ява в Индонезии.

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